There is no single and specific theory of personality, but there are theories of personality where the founder of each theory interested in identifying aspects worthy of study and identify the tools used in this according to his ideas and perception of what human behavior.
Objectives of Personality Theories
- Human understanding of his or her behavior and that of others in order to allow for a common relationship with them and to facilitate adaptation
- Predictability or probability of human behavior allowing for modification or reconfiguration
- Control behavior in order to balance and avoid distractions and alike
The theory of patterns as a method of studying personality is very long-standing, where it tried to divide the characters into patterns that combine individuals on the basis of physical, psychological or mood bases serve as a basis for predicting the most important characteristics of their personalities and behavior, despite the continued rejection by psychologists for its lack of objectivity and integration in the interpretation of all aspects Personality and its dependence on a specific number of patterns in the classification of personalities of individuals, but it still exists to this day.
What is Personality Style?
A type is a major physical or psychological characteristic that includes a group of convergent and related sub-attributes or a class of individuals who share the same general attributes and differ in their degree of characteristic. Each pattern has distinct characteristics.
The efforts of scientists were divided into theories of mood patterns, theories of physical patterns, theories of psychological patterns, theories of social patterns, namely:
What Are Mood Patterns?
The Greek physician Hippocrates 400 BC divided people into four patterns based on the four moods, blends, or body fluids that he assumed that the body made up of. These mixes lead to the dominance of one of the moods in humans and each mood has certain characteristics as follows:
- Bloody mood: characterized by activity, fun, optimism, and speed of response.
- Melancholic mood: characterized by introversion, meditation, slow thinking, pessimism and a tendency to sadness and depression.
- Biliary mood: characterized by irritability, anger, mood, stiffness, stubbornness, and strength.
- Sputum (lymphatic) mood: characterized by lethargy and dull feeling and lack of emotion and indifference and slow movement and tendency to gluttony.
What Are Physical Patterns?
Scientists have tried since ancient times to link the physical attributes and psychological qualities there were views and some of them spread and spread what relied on the science of physiognomy, which emphasizes the relationship between facial features and body and psychological qualities of the personality, or divides people criminals and non-criminals on the basis of qualities in the face distinguish criminals from others, Ernst Kirchmer, a German physician (1888-1964), observed the relationship between the bodies of psychiatric patients and the patterns of mental disorders and divided them into four types (obese – skinny – muscular – irregular), and William (1898-1977) divided people into categories according to certain criteria and reached Three basic types are:
- Abdominal (round): short fat, responds to stimuli slowly prefer to rest and loves to mix with people and cares for food, looking for pleasure and emotional life soft and fun.
- Muscular pattern: characterized by developing muscles and good coordination of strengths tend to use force, control, competition, risk, impulse, and openness, tends to work and exert activity.
- Mental mode (slender): controlled by cerebral tendency long chest tight skinny prefer loneliness shy loves mental works such as meditation and deep thinking is ready at any moment.
What Are Psychological Patterns?
Psychologist Carl Jung (1875-1961) noted that personality can be determined by psychological type:
- Diastolic personality style: is active and tends to social participation, and is interested in others and has many friends, lively frank, has energy directed towards people and things.
- Introverted personality style: the emotional energy of the interior is directed towards the self-thinking of itself centered on itself, characterized by withdrawal and social, whose behavior is subject to strict principles and laws, inelastic and characterized by doubt, shame, and fear.
What Are Social Patterns?
Eduard Spranger (1922) distributed people six categories (religious, social, political, aesthetic, economic, scientific) and they are distributed according to the prevalence of a value of all human beings, but there is a value ranked high among the owner controls his behavior, namely the six values (value Religious, social, political, aesthetic, economic and mental).